Businesses in Virginia must file with the Commonwealth for the Business and Professional Occupational License (BPOL), as well as a Business Tangible Personal Property (BTPP). Fairfax and Loudoun Counties and the Town of Herndon have additional taxing and licensing authority; businesses must register with both state and local jurisdictions within 30 days of opening a business. Real estate and transient occupancy taxes may also apply, depending on the nature of the business. The Commonwealth of Virginia and local jurisdictions tax their citizens and businesses to offset the costs of transportation, schools and other public services. The property tax rate in Fairfax County has declined from 1.74 percent of assessed value in 1978 to the present rate of 1.085 percent. The Commonwealth of Virginia has not raised its corporate income tax rate since 1972.